Saturday, 26 October 2013

The Fall of the Soviet Union and Suicide Bombing

Roads to the Temple: Truth, Memory, Ideas and Ideals in the Making of the Russian Revolution, 1987-1991 by Leon Aron (Yale University Press, 2012), pp.483

The Myth of Martyrdom: What Really Drives Suicide Bombers, Rampage Shooters and Other Self-Destructive Killers by Adam Lankford (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), pp.272

This post will be kind-of-reviewing the two books listed above. I say kind-of-reviewing because the review of the first book is more of an overview but with a few comments. The reason for the overview is twofold: first I think the book’s arguments can and should be used in future debates. Second, it is the approach of the first book that shows how wrong the second book really is. This is despite the fact they have no similarities aside from attempting to provide qualitative accounts of their subject matters (the Russian Revolution in 1991 and the trend of suicide bombers).

Roads to the Temple

The reason why I own and read this book is, I hope, obvious: I want to learn lessons from the Russian experience of bringing down unabashed socialism so that when Ed comes to power, I know how to act. Just kidding, I’m not a maniac. The real reason is because Leon Aron wrote one of my favourite essays. In that essay published in Foreign Policy, Aron persuasively rejected the material explanations for the Fall of the Soviet Union and stated that it was a ‘intellectual and moral quest’ undertaken by writers, intellectuals and then the population

beginning with a merciless moral scrutiny of the country's past and present [which] within a few short years hollowed out the mighty Soviet state, deprived it of legitimacy, and turned it into a burned-out shell that crumbled in August 1991.

Roads to the Temple is an elaboration of this essay and it doesn’t disappoint. Aron is now the author of not just one of my favourite essays but one of my favourite non-fiction books. The book is an attempt to explain the collapse of the Soviet state as a result of the ideological change that warped the country in the aftermath of Glasnost policy which, finally, allowed a modicum of freedom of speech and press.

First, Aron seeks to explain why the economic and (materially) political factors were not significant in the downfall. As he points out, ‘no key parameter of economic performance prior to 1985 pointed to a rapidly advancing disaster’; GDP while slowing was still at a respectable 1.9% throughout the period (p.13). None of this should be taken as endorsing Soviet economic policy, merely that the material conditions cannot be a persuasive explanation for what happened and particularly how it happened.[1]

Incidentally, you’ll find the same record if you look at Arab countries prior to the Arab Spring in 2011. GDP growth slowed – not least in the aftermath of the 2008 – but their growth levels were not different from the late 90s and earlier 2000s (see here). That the economic explanation for the Arab Spring seems wrong is apparent when you ask the people themselves: 59% of Egyptians say the main reason for the uprising was freedom and human rights, only 25% say economic. This is in line with empirical evidence (which Aron unfortunately doesn’t quote). As Jay Ulfield, a brilliant forecaster of regime downfalls has said:

Statistical forecasting of democratic transitions supports the supposition that, far more than leadership change or a slumping economy, the mobilization of nonviolent uprisings is what could tip China toward deep political reform

But it is not just the empirical record that shows that arguments like this are lacking – it is the approach itself, the ‘structuralist approach.’ As Aron explains structuralists ‘emphasise [the] state... as collective political actors’ and the causes of social revolutions are ‘traced back to state’s inability... to effect the necessary economic, social and political reforms.’ The main point is that these events are ‘independent of (or ‘exogenous to’) people and people’s ideas.’ This is a Weberian development on Marx’s historical materialism - the idea that the ‘causal scheme is centred on the ‘forces of production’ (the economic system)’ (p.16-17). The reason this approach fails?

If a revolutionary process is represented by a line on which letters from... a to d mark the stages of the revolution from first stirrings to triumph, the structuralist approach may be very helpful in uncovering what happened in the c-to-d stretch [but not...] what happens between a and c...

There were plenty of structural reasons why the Soviet Union should have collapsed but these fail to explain fully how it happened. In explaining the Soviet collapse we have no choice but to stray outside the universe of the ‘objective’ factors and take into consideration the enormous and subversive influence of ideas (p.17-18).

It is Aron’s approach that makes this book great. The structuralist idea has permeated public discourse. It exists in the idea that crime or terrorism is caused by poverty or foreign policy, that the choices of individuals are of little relevance. It is clear from my posts that I have an issue with structuralism (see my post on the riots and every single one of my posts on terrorism). The reason English law has given is because it ignores the role of an individual’s ‘free, informed and deliberate action’ and the authorship of that act (a view I adhere to). Aron says much the same:  ‘it is ‘ideas and actors’ rather than structures... that are the primary engines of revolution.’ As Issiah Berlin has stated

these great movements began with ideas in people’s heads... We cannot confine our attention to impersonal forces, natural and man-made, which act upon us (p.18-9).

It is these ideas that ‘provide alternatives to the current view’ and explain how ‘pre-revolutionary situations become revolutionary crises’ (p.20). Freedom of speech allowed ‘every institution – political economic and social – to be subjected to trial by truth and conscience’ (p.51). It is following this process of self-discovery and criticism that surveys showed ‘solid majorities favour some key features of liberal capitalism’ (p.32-3).

Aron then engages in a comprehensive social history of the change of ideas. So comprehensive is Aron’s study – it is based on ‘8,000 pages of Russian originals: newspapers, magazines and books’ (p.4) – that it is better described as a rigorous qualitative study. Prior to Glasnost, it was not just the concealment of the truth but the ‘hourly construction and maintenance of a parallel, brilliant reality’ (p.64). The first element of the qualitative study, then, is justifiably targeted the Russian people, ‘relearning Soviet history became a national pastime’ (p.72).

Aron  spends three chapters on the deconstruction of the myths of the Soviet Union – each page of these chapters tries to move away from the monotonous history that everyone knows to fascinating details that were being published in newly liberated Soviet papers. Each Soviet construction crumbles:  the myth of outstanding healthcare (‘the number of scalpels made in the country was 62% of the amount needed’ (p.119)); the myth that the U.S paled USSR poverty levels (‘131 million people, or 46% of Soviet citizens were [earning around $200 per month]’ (p.127)); the myth of technological development (‘India was said to have more paved roads’ (p.136)); the myth of worker efficiency (the Soviet worker ‘had to labor 10-15 times [longer] for eggs, 18-25 times for bananas and oranges’ (p.137)).

In the third part of the book, the question of who is to blame for this state of affairs is handled. For Russian intellectuals and the people the blame lay with Stalin and  Marxist-Leninist ideology. Stalin’s death didn’t affect his legacy which was found ‘in the economic, political and ideological and moral threads that riddled the society’ (p.200). The ‘cause of communism’ justified everything for Stalin (p.219) – and here ‘everything’ included the consequences described above. This ideological framework had two fundamental consequences: ‘de-individualisation’ and the complete control of the economy.

‘De-individualisation’ or the ‘nationalisation of conscience’ was a process by which the people lost their rights to define their own interests, autonomy and rights to liberty. One cause of this illiberal process was directly related to an orthodox interpretation of Marxist thought:

His [the Soviet man’s] “petty bourgeois” insistence on a better life now and for himself was an impediment to history’s glorious future for all. [It was based on] the coming of the kingdom of peace and justice (p.212-3).[2]

The Soviet economy – based on centralisation and nationalisation of the means of production – was also a cause of the deepening misery of the people. It was both a cause of the de-individualisation and a consequence. The political act of de-individualisation can only be completed by taking away of people’s private property and the scope to take control of their own lives – which inevitably leads to nationalisation of property (p.206-7). But, similarly, the economic control (which led to de-individualisation) was a ‘fundamental principle’ of the ideology (p.202).

The solution, realised by the populous and printed in newspapers, was a liberal democracy: ‘the individual was not to be the means of the party-state’s aims but a key objective himself’ and they were the rightful ‘subject[s] of the national economy’ (p.272-3). And this was translated into the political sphere: Yeltsin called for the regime to be dismantled. The Communist Party, of course, stood in the way but by now, the legitimacy of liberal democracy had made their position untenable:

The revolution culminated in August 1991 in the rallies and strikes throughout Russia in support of Gorbachev and Yeltsin against the communist coup.[3]

Despite a couple of minor gripes[4], this is, without question, one of the best non-fiction books I have read. Aside from my point above about the Arab Spring, I have only one more comment to make. Last year Chris Dillow and the late Norman Geras were debating about free speech. Norm echoing John Stuart Mill stated

It is a commonplace of political liberalism that discussion and debate are good; we learn through considering different points of view, including those to which we are opposed.

Chris Dillow disagreed:

Discussion and debate lead not so much to learning as the mere exchange of prejudice. Free speech gives us not a rational pursuit of truth but rather the mindless and often dishonest venting... Mill's defence of free speech seems to have been a rationalist Victorian optimism which isn't supported by the evidence.

And, as if by magic, the New York Times had a summary of the evidence of what happened when people were exposed to opposing views in that same week:

You might expect that people’s views would soften and that divisions between groups would get smaller. That is not what usually happens. On the contrary, people’s original beliefs tend to harden and the original divisions typically get bigger. Balanced presentations can fuel unbalanced views.

Above I referred to Roads to the Temple as a qualitative study – and I did so deliberately. This book supports the idea that free speech matters – it changed the views and then the actions of the Russian people. The studies that Chris cites are evidence of what seem to be short term confirmation bias. When confronted with the truth consistently, with good evidence and outside of short term lab conditions where results don’t matter, Norm and Mill are right. Recent human development – the constant moral progress, declining war and crime, the rise of liberalism and the decline of religion - is a testament to their correctness. Rest in peace, Norm.

Myth of Martyrdom

This was a disappointing book. Lankford is arguing against the prevailing view in the academic literature on the psychology of suicide terrorists. These are not normal terrorists but specifically the three percent who kill themselves as well as others (p.12). As Lankford explains:

[Experts] made the logical leap that in terms of their psychology, suicide terrorists were essentially just like ordinary people. “Sure, the 9/11 highjackers had extreme political and religious beliefs,” the experts admitted. But were they unstable? No. Were they suicidal? No (p.4)

Lankford believes that the “experts got it wrong” (p.2). And on his main thesis, he is right that the experts overstated that view. Robert Pape for example claims that in his study into suicide terrorists he ‘found no documented mental illness, such as depression, psychosis or past suicide attempts’ (p.29). Lankford notes the absurdity of such a position:

How likely is it that you could walk into a room with 462 people anywhere on the globe and not a single depressed person would be present? [The odds are] 1 in 19,574,665,823... Either Pape has unintentionally discovered that suicide bombing is the most remarkable cure for... mental illness or something is seriously wrong with his so-called “comprehensive and reliable research.” (p.30)

Lankford draws on a study carried out by Ariel Merari whose research looked at 12 regular terrorists (that is non-suicide bombers) and 15 suicide bombers who were stopped. The results show that Pape is wrong: 53.3% of would-be suicide bombers had depressive tendencies compared with 8.3% in regular terrorists; 20% of them had post traumatic stress disorder compared to 0%; 13.3% previous suicide attempts compared to 0%.

Clearly, despite Merari’s small sample, this is enough to disprove Pape’s idea that there are no documented cases of past suicide attempts or instances of depression. But Lankford goes beyond this and suggests that it is part of the explanation for terrorism. Lankford is clearly aware of the study carried out by Bryan and Araj (2012) (he quotes it on p.50) – and yet does not take their criticisms seriously. Here is what they say in their response to Merari:

Merari finds that one of four respondents who tried to activate their explosive device displayed suicidal tendencies in interviews, compared to five of eleven respondents who did not try to activate their explosive device. [But taking into account the margin of error] there is no statistically significant difference between the two categories of respondents in terms of their likelihood of displaying suicidal tendencies (p.435).

This severely weakens an attempt at ‘explaining’ terrorism using mental illness. Moreover, as Lankford rightly notes, even if we take Merari’s findings at face value, it is still only half of suicide terrorists that have depressive tendencies.[5] Lankford’s mistake is ignoring the role of ideas in these individuals. Clearly mental illness does not cause terrorism (not even Lankford makes this claim) and clearly it is not a necessary component in suicide terrorism (as Merari’s research shows). Indeed, it doesn’t even seem to follow trends of suicide terrorism (the author notes that there has been a 300% increase in suicide terrorism between 2001 and 2010 on p.20 – but there is likely no tangible difference in (i) incidence of mental illness compared with other countries and (ii) change over time in the Middle East itself, ignoring the issue of home-grown terrorists – see here).

Rather, the main cause is the acceptance of the idea that terrorism is an acceptable form of conduct and is essential to fight that forms a necessary and sufficient explanation (see here for evidence and elaboration). Indeed, Lankford is right note it is a misconception to say that ‘suicidal people are crazy and irrational’ – as he notes, ‘there is a broad spectrum of people who struggle with suicidal urges and mental health problems... [some] have no grasp of rationality, but many [do]’ (p.31). But he doesn’t seem to realise that this means that the suicide-terrorist population, then, is able to have individuals committed to the cause who happen to be suicidal – and hence in terms of explaining their actions or culpability, there is no difference. And this fits in with the statistics: 5% of the general population are depressed and roughly half of the 3% of terrorists who attempt to blow themselves up are depressed.

If we ignored this ideological element, these individuals could kill themselves in their rooms but they choose not to – why? Lankford claims that the answer lies in the cultural stigma of suicide:

When a community strongly condemns conventional suicide as a certain path to hell, it virtually disappears as potential escape route. And when a significant percentage of people believe that suicide terrorism is justified, a new door opens for desperate individuals (p.153)

I have argued against this idea before: as the research on attitudes to suicide terrorism shows, there is no significant difference between communities around the world. Israeli Jews are 1% more likely to approve compared with Palestinians – and way above both groups are Mormon Americans. Lankford’s argument does not fit with the empirical record (presented above and in these two posts) and inevitably requires him to rely on cultural views in one respect (on suicide) but ignore it in another (on suicide terrorism).

Aside from the aforementioned empirical research and failings, Lankford has to contend with a further point. If suicide terrorists are stopped from committing plain suicide in their rooms because of the religious sanctions, we would expect them to have high religiosity. But they do not. Faiza Patel in Rethinking Radicalisation notes that ‘the religiosity-terrorism connection is simply not borne out by empirical research’ (p.10) – and an there is an indirect connection according to Lankford.[6] That Lankford is wrong is shown in another way. In his chapter on the psychology of the 9/11 terrorists he says the following:

Other members of Atta’s group acknowledged their sexual desires, flirted with women on the street [in Las Vegas] and even boasted of sexual conquests... sometimes it is those who appear to be most repressed on inhibited who are actually most likely to engage in risky sexual behaviours (p.78)

Lankford posits that culture presents a closed door for people who want to kill themselves – and the only way they can is through terrorism and so ‘a new door opens for desperate individuals’ – and yet, the culture against promiscuity doesn’t stop terrorists from having premarital sex. This makes yet another thing that Lankford has to ignore to sustain his argument. As these criticisms build, it is unsurprising why the view of the ‘experts’ which Lankford derides stands in stark contrast to his view.  

Still, Lankford is extremely consistent in his view so much so that he applies his reasoning to Oprah Winfrey. But this wrong-headed consistency goes to show how much Lankford is ignoring ideas. Oprah’s destiny – nor a terrorists -  was not decided by her own views, deliberations and actions. Lankford states that she attempted suicide after finding out that she was pregnant (out of wedlock) and wanted to avoid her father’s disapproval. He goes on to say:

Oprah Winfrey is not a suicide bomber... But if a teenage Oprah had been in the wrong place at the wrong time, she may have snuck out of her house, filmed a martyrdom video, cursed the infidels, strapped explosives to her chest and blown herself up (p.51)

At times Lankford seems to contradict himself or is not clear enough to understand. He (rightly) rejects the ‘foreign policy’ causes terrorism viewpoint (p.160). But he does believe there is a link because of the (i) psychological effects of war which increase suicidal people and (ii) the influx of weapons. If my criticism of his view above is convincing then we can clearly reject even this indirect argument about foreign policy – however the reason I raise the point is for two reasons. Firstly, inexplicably, he goes on to state to ‘these types of conflict will likely boost social approval of suicide terrorism against nearby enemies’ (p.161). This is an empirically false statement (see, in particular, the reduction in support for terrorism following Operation Cast Lead).

Secondly is a non-empirical point. Lankford’s prose throughout the book is barbed against his opponents – and even more than that, he believes their work brings happiness to terrorists:

You’re a terrorist leader. In front of you sits stacks of newspapers from around the world. You can’t believe your good fortune... You couldn’t have hired a better publicist. [The world’s leading academic scholars] say that suicide terrorists are psychologically normal and their attacks are caused by West’s military occupation of your lands... And you laugh. (p.38-9)

It is as though Paul Krugman wrote a book about suicide terrorism. But the point I’m making is this: Lankford’s views on foreign policy – both as an indirect cause and then his empirically false statement about support – is exactly the kind of thing that makes terrorists ‘laugh.’ Lankford should not be so barbed if he is then going to say the same thing. At times the author makes other ill judgments and extrapolates on the basis of facts where he really shouldn’t. He says ‘powerful evidence that suicide terrorists’ are not psychologically normal can come from ‘Zuheir’ (a single individual) on page 48.  In an attempt to show that a terrorist was suicidal, he cites her statement that ‘she [the terrorist] should have died in [her dead brother’s] place’ (p.56).  He even starts whole paragraphs of speculation knowing what he is doing (p.79).

Finally, the book is extremely badly written and filled with self-aggrandisement – it not only as though Paul Krugman wrote the book but also Nick Hornby. Here are a few of the stellar statements that are representative of the books cringe-worthy writing style:

Answers are sexy and true enlightenment can be orgasmic (p.148)

As Michael Jackson explained in his critically acclaimed song “Man in the Mirror” sometimes the best you can help others is to “take a look at yourself, and then make a change” (p.154)

I wrote that “the best scenario might be if [Bin Laden] is killed by soldiers in a surprise attack...” Looking back, these words now appear prophetic. If Bin Laden wanted to see what was coming... maybe he should have read my book (p.152).


[1] Aron dedicates a whole chapter to the inefficiencies of the Soviet economy: ‘redundant material items (that is, thing made but not utilised) reached an estimated 570 billion rubels or about half of the national economy’ (p.181). While the causes of failure are well known and noted by Aron (‘this system could not but reproduce economic “disproportions”: they were “built into the very principle of centralized planning”’ (p.203) + the bad incentives), he does not explain why the Soviet economy grew so much despite this backward economic system. For an answer to that question, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty provides a good answer. As Acemoglu and Robinson explain in the book

There was unrealised economic potential from reallocating this labour [i.e., peasants in the countryside using primitive technology] from agriculture to industry. Stalinist industrialisation was brutal way of unlocking this potential. By fiat, Stalin moved these very poorly used resources into industry, where they could be employed more productively, even if the industry was very inefficiently organised relative to what could be achieved (p.127)

As they note, institutions like the Soviet system cannot be maintained over extensive periods of time because they cannot generate ‘technological change for two reasons: the lack of economic incentives and resistance by  elites’ (p.128).

[2] Another cause was the idea that there was no objective morality. Virtue was defined by how much it was a ‘tool in the “service of the cause of communism”... it “accepted and justified everything”’ (p.217).  

[3] It’s interesting to contrast the book with Francis Fukyama’s The End of History where the non-structuralist approach is seemingly adopted: ‘critical weakness that eventually toppled these strong [authoritarian] states was in the last analysis a failure of legitimacy – that is a crisis on the level of ideas’ (p.15). But the inconsistency arises in the details: ‘the absence of legitimate authority has meant [when there is] some failure in some area of policy, there was no higher policy to which the regime could appeal’ (p.39). For the USSR, ‘economic failure’ could not be ignored because the regime ‘based its claims to legitimacy on its ability to allow for a higher standard of living’ (p.28). Fukyama’s timeline, like Aron’s, draws attention to glasnost and the liberalisation that stems thereof – but Fukyama’s timeline starts well before: ‘the beginning of the end [can be] traced to... period following the death of Stalin [1953]’ (p.31-2).

Fukuyama does explain that it was only after the 1980s liberalisation that civil society began reconstituting itself (and thus contributed to preventing the Communist coup from taking over in 1991) (p.31, p.28) but the differences between two authors are (i) when the Soviet people became aware and (ii) the effect of Krushchev in 1953 (p.32). These two questions deserve further study.

[4] The connection between ideology, Marxism and the consequences could have been a lot clearer. Aron doesn’t distil the connection adequately because, in my view, his book is reporting what people were saying – and therefore an analysis of ideology does not seem apt. Secondly, at times Aron’s own ideology comes out. For example, in a chapter entitled ‘The Disintegration of Souls’ which is aimed at showing the “moral degradation” of the Soviet people (p.191), he marshals the following as evidence: “Abortions were pandemic” (p.193).

[5] Lankford attempts to argue against this by talking about suicidal tendencies. That is not the same as depression.

[6] This connection is belied by Marc Sageman’s study (‘a lack of religious literacy and education appears to be a common feature among those that are drawn to [militant] groups’) and also the work of Rich Nielsen:

Rich Nielsen of Harvard University recently published a study in which he found that the main factors driving radicalism were not poverty or ideology of teachers. Rather, it was the poor quality of academic and educational networks. Based on his research, Nielsen found clerics with the best academic networks had a 2-3 percent chance of becoming self-styled jihadists, as opposed to a 50 percent chance for those who were badly networked.

It is not religion that matters, but an ideological view on religion. A more recent example to exemplify this trend was the Tsarnev brothers, see this comprehensive report from the Boston Globe


Susan said...

Awesome Review on both the books. I would like to read Roads to the temple said...

Marketing Assignment Help
law assignment help
finance assignment help
Accounting assignment help
Assignment help
Make My Assignment
Dissertation writing Service
Do my assignment
Nursing Assignment help
Best Marketing management assignment help service from at affordable prices. Get 100% plagiarism free marketing homework help in UK, USA, and Australia.

Anonymous said...

I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article. I am hoping the same best work from you in the future as well Assignment help| Need Assignment help

phd writers said...

First You got a great blog .I will be interested in more similar topics. i see you got really very useful topics, i will be always checking your blog thanks.

Pay Me To Do Case Study Solution said...

The Leading Assignment Help UK Firm Offers State Of The Art Services To Its Clients With A Promise Of Delivering All The Required Work Well Within The Deadline.

Online Accounting Managerial Project Help said...

Dissertation Guidance Provides Quality Online Dissertation Help For Students.

Parks Rosa said...

It is good to read such a valuable information and thanks for sharing it. Livewebtutors is striving towards creating a great learning platform and hence, provide authentic essay writing help to make it more informative.

Jessica Pearl said...

Thank you very much for providing the important information for me. I am working as an academic consultant in USA and offer Excellent Coursework help Services to college students.

Pankaj Singh said...

Thanks for posting really such interesting post. I would recommend your site to my friends. Visit for
Offshore Anonymous Hosting

Dan Smith said...

Thanks for sharing your wealthy information. This is one of the excellent posts which I have seen. I go through your all of your blog, but this blog is the best one. It is really what I wanted to see hope in future you will continue for sharing such an excellent post. We also provide blog CDR Report.

Pankaj Singh said...

Amazing Information, I really Like it. This post truly made my day. You can’t imagine just how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks. Visit for
Web Designing Company in Delhi

sachin.ogeninfo said...

Lyrics with music
English Song lyrics
punjabi Song lyrics

sachin.ogeninfo said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Customer Help Care said...

Nice blog, thank you so much for sharing this amazing and informative blog. Visit for
Hong Kong Honeymoon Packages
Europe Honeymoon Packages
Maldives Honeymoon Packages

MobileAppDevelopment said...

I really happy found this website eventually. Really informative and inoperative, Thanks for the post and effort! Please keep sharing more such blog. I have really like your blog and inspire me in many ways, we have already set a high standard for Mobile app development company.

sachin.ogeninfo said...

refrigerator repair in gurgaon
lg fridge repair in gurgaon
washing machine repair in gurgaon

sachin.ogeninfo said...

Haier Fridge Repair In Faridabad
Panasonic Fridge Repair In Faridabad

sachin.ogeninfo said...

plastic pouch manufacturers in delhi
wall putty bag manufacturers
gusseted bags manufacturers

sachin.ogeninfo said...

website designing company in Gurgaon
ppc company in Gurgaon
seo company in Gurgaon

مروة محمد said...

شركة تسليك مجاري بالقطيف

Lyrics said...

Welcome to AZLyrics! It's a place where all searches end! We have a large, legal, every day growing universe of punjabi song lyrics where stars of all genres and ages shine.

Dylan Eales said...

Thanks for this informative content. It’s really good. Actually, I want to share some thoughts and reviews about an assignment help Australia company in Australia and the brand name is SAMPLE ASSIGNMENT. Here, I am working as an Academic Expert. To look at our online academic assistants who provide reference assignment including Accounting, Management, Finance, IT, Economics, Computer Science, Nursing, Marketing; all Academic subjects to University Students all over the Australia or even worldwide, Here is a big online assignment help providers who help students to get HD grades according to assessment guidelines and instructions. Those who are searching for assignment help Melbourne, Perth, Brisbane, Adelaide etc. get a touch with Sample Assignment - the No.1 Assignment provider. Any student really wants to buy an assignment at the cheapest price goes to our branded website and has a look and opts our amazing and informative services, you can avail of our convenient online assignment help and samples available on our website for free. You can download it if you want. Are you ready to get 100 out of 100 in your university assessment? We assign the best writer according to the subject for your academic problems and provide support in assignment writing services. Our Customer Care Executives are available 24*7 hours to assist you in the best possible manner. Phone calls and emails are the best methods used by online assignment maker.

رجب البرنس said...

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم نحن فى شركة الكمال نقوم بجميع عزل الخزانات المياه سواء كانت مياة الشرب او

مياه الغسيل كما اننا يوجد لدين خدمة تسليك المجارى بافضل الطرق
شركة عزل خزانات بالطائف
شركة عزل خزانات بجازان
شركة عزل خزانات بحائل
والسلامة عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

Teena Aggarwal said...

iso certification in noida
iso certification in delhi
Halal Certification in Delhi
haccp certification in delhi

Teena Aggarwal said...

pouch manufacturers
wall putty bag manufacturers

شوشو said...

شركة مكافحة حشرات بالجبيل
شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالدمام

prashant said...

Here I am sharing a very useful resource for students looking for assignment help. ProAssignmentHelp providing all sort of assignment writing in various subjects like as : Electrical engineering assignment help , electronics assignment help , MATLAB assignment help , management assignment help , etc.

Appsquadz said...

Thanks for sharing this post. I want to share some helpful information regarding Mobile App Development Company assistance. We also provide services like Mobile app development company

Aman Kumar said...

Here I am sharing wonderful platform for students in Australia , US and UK seeking for programming assignment help. This is , world's no1 programming help company since 2014. They cover almost all wide range of programming subjects, here you go:
C Programming Assignment Help , C++ Programming Assignment Help , Python Programming Assignment Help , R Programming Assignment Help , and MATLAB Assignment Help . Visit now!

Alley John said...

The information you have shared with us is beneficial and informative. MyAssignmentHelp provides urgent assignment help services at affordable prices and delivers work before the asked deadline.

Joy Brick said...

Assignment Help services are the most effective solution for assignment writing even in the U.S.A. Browse the website of to receive the best online academic writing services for your assignment writing.
Online Assignment Help
Online Assignment Help Services
Assignment Help Online

john amber said...

Thank you for this wonderful information looking forward for more. If you are in need for online assignment writing assistance for an intricate assignment and thesis topic, then avail our assignment writing service in Australia. and save your time to relax and do your studies properly. Our Online Quiz Help online service in Australia has earned huge popularity among both domestic and international students. There’s no better place in the Australia than firstassignmenthelp . Contact us now to buy assignments online in the Australia Leave your tensions to us and enjoy your free time.

Research Paper Help said...

Thanks so much for the blog post its very informative and I commend you for that. I will have to bookmark this site and show my friends. I also found below links helpful maybe you can have a look as you can get a assignment help online or an essay help online. You can check our sample research questions, essay questions as well as essay answers for the papers we have done before.

Joy Brick said...

Connect with Ph.D. writers to solve your numerical problems via Maths Assignment Help services. Students can boost their knowledge and receive effective solution by hiring online academic writer for Maths homework.
Mathematics Assignment Writer
Math Assignment Help
Mathematics Assignment Expert
Math Homework
Math Assignment

Assignment Help said...

Assignment Help offers profound source of knowledge via professional assignment writers. Take the fast and reliable online academic writing services to face no delay in your project submission.
Assignment Help Online
Online Assignment Help
Assignment Helper
Online Assignment Helper
Assignment Help USA

assignment help said...

Take Assignment Help in the event that you discover extreme to compose your USA college task. Contract a scholarly essayist and finish your task before the due dates even you are in the USA.
Assignment Help Online
Best Assignment Help
Assignment Helper
Assignment Help In USA
Online Assignment Help
Assignment Help Experts
Online Assignment Help Services

poly said...

Thank you for bringing to a halt my long search topic. I really benefited from your content. If you are experiencing trouble striking a balance between your busy academic life and handling your online classes, you can get help from a professional who will take online classes on your behalf. It doesn’t matter the kind of help you need, whether it is passing your exam, finishing your assignments or even the entire classwork, you can get help here at Online Class Help .

Ellie Smith said...

Take the best Textbook solutions from the highly skilled professional that too at lowest cost monthly subscription. You can also avail 24x7 live chat option and find quick help.

Euni said...

What a chance to have read your blog. Did you know? Just as an air purifier can bring a lot of health benefits to you and your household right in your home, so does the best car air purifier when inside your car. Visit Best Car Exhaust Air Purifier for more.

Jenifer said...

Our biology assignment help service is the only method through which you can opt for expert’s help to complete any academic task within the given time. So, if you think if you have stress for any assignment, then hire our service now!

Ian said...

Nice article. Nursing students are normally required to write several academic papers before they can graduate. Those students have great writing skills, access to material resources and sufficient time normally find writing such papers to be quite interesting. Visit on Nursing Paper Writing Help for more

Ian said...

Hello there, great stuff you’ve shared here I will be checking regularly for more articles. When it becomes hard to manage your online assignment, availing Online Assignment Help is the best choice. Many students often fail to submit their assignment before deadlines and end up scoring low grades because they didn’t have enough time to write the assignment given on time and satisfactorily. Visit Assignment Help . for assistance.

My Assignment Help Online said...

Myassignmenthelp is the proficient academic writing service holding a ingenious team of more than 3,000 assignment tutors, dedicated to assist students with the authentic my assignment help services. Our specialised team for my assignment help Australia team is available 24x7 to help students on a plethora of assignments, essays, coursework and more.

Max Willor said...

That’s What I Call An Excellent Post. This Is So Comprehensive That I Do Not Have To Hop Anywhere Else For The Information. Great Work, Am Following Your Posts! At MyAssignmentHelpAu, We Offer Pocket-Friendly Services And Write Tailored Assignments. Students Trust Our Assignment Help in Australia. To Get Authentic Assignments Within Deadlines, Hire Us Today!

Abhi verma said...

Thank you so much for sharing such useful and interesting information. Your website is highly effective and contains. Are you interested in bitcoin? If yes then you can know how to earn Bitcoin without investment

Anonymous said...

This is the greatest articles I have come across on internet. Most nurses work and study at the same time which makes them lack time to work on their nursing papers. Nursing also covers a wide range of topics that need thorough research especially when students have nursing papers to work not. Do not fret when Do my Nursing Paper . is here. Our team of writers is skilled and knowledgeable in all nursing areas.

Assignment help said...

Get that assignment writing service, which students look for these days, from us. Unlike other websites, My Assignment Help is relatively easier and user friendly, when it comes to ordering your assignments. All you have to do is simply fill out the form and sit relax.

Max Rusel said...

Thanks for posting such a good content, Really enjoyed this article information. We have skilled professional developers with 12+ years of experience. Also, we are giving 100% support after delivering the project. If you have any requirements regarding video streaming app then you can contact us at +91-9717270746

Arif said...

This must be a popular blog. Thank you for sharing such an informative article. Are you having problems to write an excellent CIPD assignment? Assignment Help is the only solution to let go of your difficulties in minutes. We are the qualified assistant to deal with your high-level CIPD assignments by pouring in our efforts to let you present the best of the writing. CIPD is just not a professional qualification but a ladder to experience the professional avenues that guarantee to take you to your desired destination. Read more on on CIPD Assignment Help AE .

Veronica Kate said...

The blog written is extremely impressive, with a great topic. However, a bit more research could have strengthened it even further. You can explore the services as offered by, a premium academic writing services platform offering the best of Thesis editing service teamed with knowledge and experience.

Caleb said...

I appreciate the effort you make to give out article like this. The number of students seeking urgent assignment is on the rise globally due to students receiving the urgent assignment from their professors but many scholars lacking the time needed to complete the tasks on an urgent basis. Urgent assignment help, therefore, results in many students failing to secure the complete the tasks on an urgent basis which results in the students seeking assignment help for the tasks from our professional assignment writing services. Go ahead and reach out to us for Urgent Assignment Help

seorankagency1 said...

Grow your Local online business with Indias Top local SEO agency. We provide local seo services at best-cost. Our local seo services india helps you to increase your page rankings, thus increasing your online visibility and traffic.Our SEO specialists help you to Get More web traffic, leads, and sales from local consumers?Call at 8287878854.

Online Front said...

Online Front is a professional digital marketing company in Delhi. You can get the best digital marketing services by online front. We have an expert team of digital marketing who make the best strategy to promote your business through Google, Facebook, Instagram, and other social media platforms. We know it might be tough to achieve the target but not impossible. And our team proved! you can check our previous work with our previous client.

Visit For More Info:-

Website Development Company In Delhi
Digital Marketing Company In Delhi
Website Development Packages
Website Designing company in delhi
Social Media Management Packages
Email Marketing Services

Visit Our Partner’s Site:-

Gas Stove Repair & Services in Delhi
B2B Marketplace in Delhi
Satta King

Nick Hebrew said...

Such a wonderful information blog post on this topic provides assignment service at an affordable cost in a wide range of subject areas for all grade levels, we are already trusted by thousands of students who struggle to write their academic papers and also by those students who simply want Physiology Assignment Help to save their time and make life easy.

Awad Elsayed said...

إن الفلل تحتاج اثناء تنظيفها غلى عناية خاصة جدًا نظرًا لاتساع مساحتها واحتاجها إلى التنظيف الشامل لجميع أجزائها وملحقاتها والفلل أيضًا تحتوي على العديد من الغرف والعديد من قطع الأثاث المختلفة، ويتم الاستعانة من قبل اصحاب الفلل بشركة تنظيف فلل من اجل القيام بجميع عمليات التنظيف الشاملة للفلل ومن أجل الحصول على اعلي درجات من التنظيف. إن شركتنا هي الأقوى والأفضل بالمملكة العربية السعودية، كما أن شركتنا تمتلك العديد من الفروع في جميع انحاء المملكة العربية السعودية، وشركتنا تمتلك العديد من الخصائص الرائعة والمميزات التي تجعلها الشركة الافضل على الاطلاق ومن الجدير بالذكر أن شركتنا تمتلك أسطول كبير من السيارات يساعدها في التنقل من مكان إلى آخر ، كما أن شركتنا تتميز بالمصداقية والخبرة العالية ، حيث أنها تعمل في مجال تنظيف الفلل منذ اكثر من 20 عام.
شركة كشف تسربات المياه بابها

شركة عزل خزانات بابها

شركة عزل اسطح بابها

شركة تنظيف خزانات بابها

شركة تنظيف بابها

david anderson said...

A student's life is a bustling issue with broad learning plans, social life, and extra-curricular responsibilities, and for a few; even part-time work. Offer your assignment stresses with us like a huge number of your companions have, from around the globe. We won't frustrate you. In our undertaking to offering the best Assignment Help online in Canada

William smith said...

Need Java Assignment Help. Hire our experts to get top-notch quality assignment help. Assignment Hippo is the best assignment service provider offered online. Need Visual Basics Assignment Help? contact our expert tutors on live chat with queries. For more detailed information, Visit us to avail our Assignment Help services Now.

William smith said...

Are you worried about the Finanace Assignment Help? If yes, then My Assignment Help is offering quality Assignment Help to the students at an affordable price. We are one of the renowned finance assignment solution providers in the world. The assignment is written by experts who have complete knowledge of finance. Visit our website for more detailed information.

Digital Marketing Service said...

Nice Post. You are Share great post and keep posting.
Diabetes Management in Meerut
Google 360 Virtual Tour Services
Meerut News In Hindi
Website Designer
Meerut Boy
SEO Solution India
Web Development Dehradun

harryparker0123 said...

When you attempt to open a corporation file then you would possibly have fallen prey to QuickBooks Error 6150. There’s not just 1 reason behind this but several of them.
The most common one is that your company file could be corrupted and to beat it, you'll be needed to make a transportable computer file before trying to repair the matter.
We need to make a computer file because if something goes wrong then you ought to have a computer file to fall back to. It could have also happened if you tried to put in QuickBooks and therefore the process got corrupted.

baroncorrz said...

Printer problems can be really frustrating especially when you have to get some work done immediately. Epson printer paper feed problem is one of the common issues faced by Epson printer users. Due to this issue, you cannot print from your Epson printer until you fix it. So it is important to fix the Epson printer paper feed problems immediately to get your printer back in the working state. For that, you can refer to our troubleshooting guides or contact us directly to let our Epson printer experts fix your Epson printer in a beat.

Jessica Jones said...

This is very interesting article topic to me and, I have thoroughly enjoyed reading your many blogs. I care for such this niche information a lot. I was exploring this particular info for a long time. Thanks to this post my exploration has ended. australia assignment -
resume writing services -
essay writing service

Investmango said...

Thank you for your outstanding article. You will always find clients coming back to us which is a result of our excellent services. Our goal is to offer unique and specialized services to our clients and in return create a long-lasting working relationship. We provide the Best Ace Divino Flats and 3 BHK, 4 BHK Flats, Apartments, Penthouse, Corporate Properties, Commercial Properties in Noida, Greater Noida West, Delhi NCR with Great Discount and Deals. Learn more about Investmango visit our website and call now:- 8076042671

baroncorrz said...

Printers play an essential role in our daily life but there are times when they become the reason for our frustration. You know what we are talking about. Printer problems are a headache especially when you encounter them at the time of need. They can prevent you from printing or performing any tasks from your printer at all. All printer users face these issues now and then which is the reason you should be aware of some basic troubleshooting. why is my epson printer in an error state are one such problem that Epson printer users often experience with their printers. The error occurs when there is something wrong with the printer, it can be the paper jam problem, printer software issues, or even hardware problems. To fix the printer in an error state, you need to find out the exact cause behind it or you can try basic troubleshooting to resolve the possible cause of the error. Refer to our self-help guide to fix the Printer in an error state or contact our printer experts to let them resolve your issue instead.

assignmentauthors said...

Due to this nature, people tend to be more responsive to losses as compared to equivalent gains thus affecting the decisions they make. hire an essay writer

Assignment Help Pro said...

Advanced education students regularly need Dissertation Helps. It is one of the most overwhelming assignments at school and can represent the deciding moment a degree, which makes the dissertation help critical. It requires time, broad research, and orderly scientific capacity.